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Market Research Group

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Although approachability is essential, it is unfortunately rarely discussed and as a result, most people assume it is a natural trait based on charisma. In reality, being approachable simply requires a key few steps. Read on more to find out how you can be a more approachable person.


While there are many other self-help books on communication, this is first and only book to examine the essential element of approachability. What's more, this is not just a "how-to" book, it's a "how-to-become" book. You will learn:

We provide a setting and a general approach to fair online learning with stochastic sensitive and non-sensitive contexts.The setting is a repeated game between the Player and Nature, where at each stage both pick actions based on the contexts. Inspired by the notion of unawareness, we assume that the Player can only access the non-sensitive context before making a decision, while we discuss both cases of Nature accessing the sensitive contexts and Nature unaware of the sensitive contexts. Adapting Blackwell's approachability theory to handle the case of an unknown contexts' distribution, we provide a general necessary and sufficient condition for learning objectives to be compatible with some fairness constraints. This condition is instantiated on (group-wise) no-regret and (group-wise) calibration objectives, and on demographic parity as an additional constraint. When the objective is not compatible with the constraint, the provided framework permits to characterise the optimal trade-off between the two.

Honesty is the best policy. Sometimes, it proves challenging to tell people what they may not want to hear. But, in the end, sharing the truth always is easier. And, honest leaders are esteemed. They earn more credibility with the truth than when caught in a lie. Be honest, fair, and polite. You will gain more respect and approachability.

Figure 1. Predicted approachability ratings for low and high empathy are displayed for each facial expression, separately for the three contexts: (A) neutral context, (B) receiving help, and (C) giving help. Low empathy is estimated based on one SD below the mean and high empathy on one SD above the mean. Standard error bars are shown. Asterisks are provided to identify those emotions for which empathy was a significant predictor.

Citation: Willis ML, Lawson DL, Ridley NJ, Koval P and Rendell PG (2015) The contribution of emotional empathy to approachability judgments assigned to emotional faces is context specific. Front. Psychol. 6:1209. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01209

Oral health during pregnancy is vital for both mother and child. Indigenous Australians face many barriers in accessing dental care. Service approachability is one of the key domains in accessing health services. There is little empirical evidence of the association between service approachability and dental care attendance or oral health outcome. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between dental service approachability on dental care attendance and self-reported gum disease among South Australian women pregnant with an Aboriginal child.

Four hundred and twenty-seven women pregnant with an Aboriginal child completed questionnaires in both metropolitan and regional health settings in South Australia in 2011. Four variables related to approachability of dental services: (1) perception of need; (2) service-related health literacy; (3) oral health beliefs and; (4) trust and expectation of dental service. The association between service approachability-related factors, dental utilisation and self-reported gum disease during pregnancy were assessed using Generalised Poisson regression models, after adjusting for age, remoteness, employment status and education. Estimates were presented as adjusted prevalence ratios (APR).

Other researchers have, in recent years, applied the model developed by Levesque [25] when working with marginalised populations, such as refugees [30] and Indigenous people [27]. However, all prior research used the model to structure reviews, not to examine the inherent associations of each of the domains with a given service utilisation and its health outcome. The aim of this study was innovative in applying the Levesque model to examine the relationship between dental service approachability on the demand side with dental care attendance and self-reported gum disease among women pregnant with an Aboriginal child in South Australia. The hypothesis was that participants with a perceived need for dental care would have a higher uptake of dental care, resulting in better oral health outcome.

Participants were recruited through the antenatal clinic of hospitals and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations in South Australia in both metropolitan and regional locations. During data collection, researchers and staff members in health settings would approach potential participants and to provide information about the study, before obtaining written, informed consent. Convenience sampling was adopted, and criteria were: (1) Participants must be the pregnant residents of South Australia, and (2) were expecting an Aboriginal Australian baby or babies. The questionnaire included items used in the Australia national dental survey [33], and had been pilot tested and discussed by members in Indigenous communities and Aboriginal Maternal Infant Care workers. There were 23 domains with a wide range of oral health information in the questionnaire, including dental health, dental behaviours, dental cost, dental perceptions, oral health belief, etc. Items used in the study were oral health outcome, outcome of service utilisation, and factors related to dental care approachability [31, 32]. Recruitment commenced February 1, 2011 and ended on May 30, 2012. Participants who did not answer all questions were excluded from the study.

Our research sought to examine the relationship between dental service approachability, dental care attendance and self-reported gum disease among women pregnant with an Aboriginal child in South Australia using a modified version of the Levesque model. The findings showed that service-related factors were associated with dental attendance, which was consistent with the modified model. However, little effect was observed between service-related factors and self-reported gum disease, and no association was observed between dental attendance and self-rated gum disease. The results highlight the limitations of using the modified model in a quantitative study such as the one implemented.

This was the first study to describe dental uptake and service approachability, and to test the association with self-reported gum disease among women pregnant with an Indigenous child in Australia. Most of studies [27] focus on provision of transport and reduction of cost to improve the accessibility of health care for Aboriginal people. Little empirical research has focused on the phases before actual interaction with the health care service, including participant motivation and capability to contact the service. This study reiterates the importance of system navigation in accessing dental care, which might also give more directions to improve accessibility of primary health care for Indigenous people. Indications for future research include: (1) Dental health literacy on how to navigate dental systems is important in the access outcome of dental care. Navigation support could be integrated with technologies, based on local community networks and collaborating with midwives. (2) The effect that approachability of a given service has on health outcomes (dental attendance). Motivations for visiting a dentist differ, and this has an impact on oral health outcomes. Previous uptake of dental care was not a good indicator of oral health. There is a need for better analytical approaches, and different measures of exposures and outcomes to better illustrate the impact that utilisation of dental care has on oral health outcomes.

Although dental care was recognised as being important among our sample of women pregnant with an Indigenous child in South Australia, dental utilisation was low. Ability to successfully navigate the dental care system was associated with regular dental attendance. Perceived need for dental care was associated with self-reported gum disease. No association was observed between service-approachability-related factors and self-reported gum disease.

Appendixes. Appendix A: Figure S1: A conceptual framework of access to health care [25]. Appendix B: Table S1: Questionnaire of factors impacting on dental service approachability. Appendix C: Figure S2: Variables corresponding to service-oriented model of accessing dental care.

Faces contain critical cues for social judgments. Facial expressions and gaze cues are vital in judging how approachable or trustworthy one is and likely determine future social interactions. Given the Covid-19 pandemic where wearing face masks is mandatory in many settings, how do face masks affect the way we judge other people? Are there hidden social costs that have gone unnoticed? In this research we seek to understand fundamental attentional dynamics on how face masks influence social judgment facets of approachability and trustworthiness.

Approachability and trustworthiness are fundamental aspects of social judgments that facilitate the formation of social bonds. Judging approachability (i.e., approach or avoidance intent) is adaptive because it signals whether a potential interaction partner is a friend or a foe (Calvo et al., 2018; Mattavelli et al., 2012) and marks the beginning of a social engagement (Adams & Kleck, 2005; Elliot, 2008; Willis et al., 2011a, b). Trustworthiness judgement is critical to avoid the dire consequences from over-trusting and the opportunity cost of mistrusting which have been found to implicate key social outcomes from job hiring selection to governmental election and long-term relationship choice (Bzdok et al., 2010; Carrito et al., 2020; Todorov et al., 2013). From the primitive threat perception ensuring safety to the more sophisticated behavioral intent inference, approachability and trustworthiness judgements play pivotal roles in modulating our social behavioral responses in order to interact appropriately with others and achieve an optimal social outcome (Todorov, 2008; Willis et al., 2011a, b). 041b061a72

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